Pervious concrete is a special type of concrete with a high porosity used for concrete flatwork applications that allows water from precipitation and other sources to pass directly through, thereby reducing the runoff from a site and allowing groundwater recharge. (Wikipedia)
The proper utilization of pervious concrete is a recognized Best Management Practice by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for providing first flush pollution control and stormwater management. As regulations further limit stormwater runoff, it is becoming more expensive for property owners to develop real estate, due to the size and expense of the necessary drainage systems. Pervious concrete reduces the runoff from paved areas, which reduces the need for separate stormwater retention ponds and allows the use of smaller capacity storm sewers. This allows property owners to develop a larger area of available property at a lower cost. Pervious concrete also naturally filters storm water and can reduce pollutant loads entering into streams, ponds and rivers.
Pervious concrete functions like a storm water infiltration basin and allows the storm water to infiltrate the soil over a large area, thus facilitating recharge of precious groundwater supplies locally. All of these benefits lead to more effective land use. Pervious concrete can also reduce the impact of development on trees. A pervious concrete pavement allows the transfer of both water and air to root systems allowing trees to flourish even in highly developed areas.
Pervious concrete consists of cement, coarse aggregate and water with little to no fine aggregates. The addition of a small amount of sand will increase the strength. Water to cement ratio of 0.28 to 0.40 with a void content of 15 to 25%.
The correct quantity of water in the concrete is critical. A low water to cement ratio will increase the strength of the concrete, but too little water may cause surface failure. A proper water content gives the mixture a wet-metallic appearance. As this concrete is sensitive to water content, the mixture should be field checked. Entrained air may be measured by a Rapid Air system, where the concrete is stained black and sections are analyzed under a microscope.
A common flatwork form has riser strips on top such that the screed is 3/8-1/2 in. (9 to 12 mm) above final pavement elevation. Mechanical screeds are preferable to manual. The riser are strips are removed to guide compaction. Immediately after screeding, the concrete is compacted to improve the bond and smooth the surface. Excessive compaction of pervious concrete results in higher compressive strength, but lower porosity (and thus lower permeability).
Jointing varies little from other concrete slabs. Joints are tooled with a rolling jointing tool prior to curing or saw cut after curing. Curing consists of covering concrete with 6 mil. plastic sheeting within 20 minutes of concrete discharge. However, this contributes to a substantial amount of waste sent to landfills. Alternatively, preconditioned absorptive lightweight aggregate as well as internal curing admixture (ICA) have been used to effectively cure pervious concrete without waste generation.
Make It Right installs pervious driveways and sidewalks on all our homes. We have worked with the City of New Orleans to rebuild damaged roads in the Lower 9th Ward using pervious concrete - and we plan to pave parking lots, sidewalks and community spaces in Kansas City with pervious concrete as well.